Afghanistan’s next generation of leaders have an opportunity to break out of the cycles of violence that have caused civil wars, insurgencies, and widespread human rights abuses and domestic violence over the past decades.  To do this, government officials and community leaders need to have practical skills to identify sources of conflict and know how to de-escalate tensions and negotiate peaceful solutions

On top of longstanding tensions that lead to violence, youth in university campuses in Afghanistan are vulnerable targets for recruitment by radical groups including violent extremists. Providing university campuses with resources to develop and teach peaceful conflict resolution tools and techniques enables students and faculty members to stand for their rights and to oppose violent extremism through peaceful and non-violent means. 

Since 2014, USIP has worked with public and private universities as well as the Afghan Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) to develop a peace and conflict studies curriculum that can be taught by universities across the country. The courses teach students practical life skills such as negotiation, problem solving, and active listening that they can apply in their everyday lives.

By developing and institutionalizing such education programs, USIP is helping to develop a cadre of conflict resolution experts that will contribute to securing peace in Afghanistan. Students apply non-violent approaches learned in the classroom to promote conflict resolution and contribute to building durable peace in Afghanistan. 

Activities

Building Peace and Conflict Resolution Programs in Universities

Since 2014, USIP has been partnering with universities across Afghanistan to develop a curriculum-based peacebuilding and conflict resolution course. The initial efforts started when USIP partnered with Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education (GIHE), a private higher education academic institution in Kabul to develop the curriculum which was approved by the Afghan Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) in 2015. This approved curriculum has been translated into both Dari and Pashto. Today, USIP has partnered with three more universities to continue implementing and further improving the curriculum-based peace studies course. In addition, USIP continues to mentor faculty from its initial three universities in participatory pedagogy. These universities are in the process of taking full ownership of teaching the course every semester as a two-credit mandatory elective for all students to take before graduating.

Additionally, USIP has guided students and faculty in partner universities to create Peace Clubs, which engage the entire campus community on issues and activities that promote unity and peaceful relations among different campus communities.  Students that have taken the course in turn have also demonstrated increased civic participation in their communities through community outreach activities.

Through this program, USIP has led the way to develop students’ research skills through research methods workshops, field research, and contributing to the university’s quarterly peace journal which includes articles and opinion pieces by students and faculty. This is particularly important because many young Afghans believe that there are not enough opportunities on or off campus to build their research skills.

By the Numbers

Since launching the Peace Education Program in Afghanistan, students from six universities across Afghanistan have taken the course:

  • Gawharshad Institute of Higher Education: Since 2014, 1,761 students at GIHE and have taken the two-credit peacebuilding and conflict resolution course.
  • Herat University:  Since 2016, 1,699 students at HU have taken the two credit curriculum based peacebuilding and conflict resolution course.
  • Nangarhar University:  Since 2016, 946 students at NU have taken the two-credit curriculum-based peacebuilding and conflict resolution course.
  • In 2018, USIP partnered with Kandahar University, Shaikh Zayed University, Khost, and Alberoni University, Kapisa and 45 faculty have been trained in the curriculum to teach the course.
  • After completing the course, students at each university have formed peace clubs and organized over 50 activities, including debates, site clean-ups, and blood drives.  
Peacebuilding and conflict resolution training workshop at Kandahar University, April 2018
Peacebuilding and conflict resolution training workshop at Kandahar University, April 2018

Training to Teach Peace Education and Conflict Resolution in Grade Schools

The inclusion of peace education in Afghan middle schools and high schools can be vital in significantly reducing violence among students and in turn getting youth to reject extremist ideology. In 2015, USIP partnered with Help the Afghan Children (HTAC), in close collaboration with Afghanistan’s Ministry of Education, to develop a peace education curriculum for grades 7-12. HTAC has since trained 1,800 teachers from six teacher training colleges in Parwan, Kabul and Nangarhar provinces to teach peace education. The pilot curriculum is being tested in local schools by the Ministry of Education and Teachers Education Department before a decision is made on whether peace education will become a standard nationwide course.

Highlights

Peace Cricket Tournament. Sheikh Zayed University’s Peace Center initiated a cricket tournament between university departments. The tournament provided an opportunity to have students and faculty from different departments engage in peacebuilding through sports.

Sheikh Zayed University’s Peace Center' Peace Cricket Tournament

Helmand Peace Caravan. Individuals from Kandahar University joined the Helmand Peace Caravan in May 2018. The Helmand Peace Caravan started their journey from Helmand province and stayed in Kabul for a few weeks in front of the U.S. Embassy. The Caravan members met with President Ashraf Ghani as well as members of parliament and High Peace Council and shared their demands.

Kandahar University Peace Club and Helmand Peace Caravan, June 12, 2018, Kabul

Female Student becomes Peace Club President at Herat University. On June 24, 2018 Herat University’s Peace Center carried out its election to elect new leadership for the Peace Club. The outgoing leadership who graduated from the university facilitated the event and shared their experience with the new members. The election included nominations for a new president, vice president and subcommittee members the new president, vice presidents (2), and subcommittee leads positions for the Peace Club.  Based on the results, a female president was elected.

Female Student becomes Peace Club President at Herat University

Related Publications

James Mattis: Yemen Needs a Truce Within 30 Days

James Mattis: Yemen Needs a Truce Within 30 Days

Wednesday, October 31, 2018

By: USIP Staff

Secretary of Defense James Mattis yesterday urged combatants in Yemen, including Saudi Arabia and Yemen’s Iran-backed Houthi faction, to negotiate a cease-fire in that war within 30 days while speaking to diplomats, military officers and conflict-resolution specialists at the U.S. Institute of Peace. In a webcast conversation moderated by former national security advisor and USIP Chair Stephen J. Hadley, Mattis also discussed global security challenges facing the United States—from Russia and China, to North Korea—cybersecurity and the need for the developed world to help fragile states improve their governance and address the root causes of extremism.

Civilian-Military Relations; Global Policy

For the Afghan Peace Process to Work, Women Must be Involved

For the Afghan Peace Process to Work, Women Must be Involved

Monday, October 29, 2018

By: Belquis Ahmadi; Marjan Nahavandi

The bottom line is Afghan women want peace and they want to have a say in how it is negotiated. Without women at the negotiation table, a long-term and inclusive peace is dramatically less likely. Indeed, studies show that the inclusion of women in peace negotiations, leads to peace agreements that are representative of the needs of the people they affect and, therefore, more sustainable.

Gender; Peace Processes

View All Publications